The abbreviation f. (or ff.)

One of the books I’ve been reading recently is Medieval Europe: A Short History by Hollister. He uses, quite often, the abbreviation “f.” or “ff.”, for example:

The Golden Age of the Abbasids: 750 ff.

I wasn’t sure what the abbreviation meant, so I dutifully looked it up. It apparently means, simply, “and the following (pages, verses, years, etc.)”.

(The abbreviation can also stand for “fortissimo”, meaning “in a very loud manner”, but I’m fairly confident that that isn’t the meaning Hollister had in mind!)

By |2007-08-11T21:59:24+00:00August 11th, 2007|Abbreviations|3 Comments


  1. Nils August 16, 2007 at 2:08 pm - Reply

    One of the f’s could stand for folio. But I’m not sure about the other. Maybe just ‘following’ indeed?

  2. Andy September 21, 2009 at 1:36 pm - Reply

    I think it is a perfect synonym for “et seq.” meaning “and the following (pages).”

  3. Gary April 12, 2016 at 7:00 pm - Reply

    Wiktionary says it stands for, “folios following” but is usually read as, “and following.” The folios can refer to verses, paragraphs, or pages.

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